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Figure 2

Figure 2. Comparison between the VL levels values (converted firstly from copies/reaction to copies/mL) obtained from the two treated groups composed by the five standards curve points described in the qPCR system for HBV quantification reported by Aguiar et al, 2014[6], based on the pST012012 plasmid that carries the complete HBV genome. These VL values were obtained after the Stability Experiments where the work concentration of these five standard curve points received two different treatments: at -20?C all the time (10 days) or freeze-thaw each day for one hour at room temperature. There are no statistical significance when data were processed by one-way ANOVA (p = 0.2014).

Figure 1

Figure 1. The graph represents the comparison among the values of the VL ?levels (converted firstly from copies/reaction to copies/mL) and transformed by the log, from the six groups containing HBV DNA: three groups with HBV DNA inside the serum of the CHB carriers treated at -20?C or 37?C, or by the freeze-thaw procedures (Serum -20, Serum 37, Serum F/T), and three more groups composed by pure HBV DNA obtained previously from the matched CHB serum carriers and treated (DNA -20, DNA 37, DNA F/T). There is no statistical significance when data were processed by one-way ANOVA (p=0.9985).

Applied Cell Biology

A toddler puts her hand on a hot stove and swiftly withdraws it. Alas, it's too late -- the child's finger has sustained a minor burn. To soothe the pain, she puts the burned finger in her mouth.

Withdrawing one's hand to avoid injury and soothing the pain of that injury are two distinct evolutionary responses, but their molecular origins and signaling pathways have eluded scientists thus far.

Now research led by investigators at Harvard Medical School, published Dec. 10 in Nature, identifies the nerve-signaling pathway behind the deep, sustained pain that sets in immediately following injury. The findings also shed light on the different pathways that drive reflexive withdrawal to avoid injury and the subsequent pain-coping responses.

Clinical observations of patients with neurological damage together with past research have outlined the distinct brain regions that differentiate between the reflexive withdrawal from a skin prick, for example, and the long-lasting pain arising from tissue injury caused by the pinprick.

The new study, however, is the first one to map out how these responses arise outside the brain.